1 Uncontrolled diabetes leads to macrovascular and microvascular complications.

Complete study governance is usually outlined in the Supplementary Appendix. Statistical Analysis The sample-size estimate was based on the primary end point of the proportion of patients with a glycated hemoglobin level of 6 percent or less at 12 months. Based on previous research, we estimated that 20 percent of individuals would achieve the primary result with intensive medical therapy,10 83 percent with gastric bypass,5,6,9 and 50 percent with sleeve gastrectomy.15,16 We determined that 150 individuals would give a power of 80 percent to identify a difference between the two surgical groups and a power greater than 99 percent to detect any variations among the three groups.Van den Herik, M.D., Michiel J. Bos, M.D., Ph.D., Alexa Beiser, Ph.D., Mary Cushman, M.D., M.Sc., Lenore J. Launer, Ph.D., Eyal Shahar, M.D., M.P.H., Maksim Struchalin, M.Sc., Yangchun Du, B.A., Nicole L. Glazer, Ph.D., Wayne D. Rosamond, Ph.D., Fernando Rivadeneira, M.D., Ph.D., Margaret Kelly-Hayes, R.N., D.Ed., Oscar L. Lopez, M.D., Josef Coresh, M.D., Ph.D., Albert Hofman, M.D., Ph.D., Charles DeCarli, M.D., Susan R. Heckbert, M.D., Ph.D., Peter J. Koudstaal, M.D., Ph.D., Qiong Yang, Ph.D., Nicholas L. Smith, Ph.D., Carlos S. Kase, M.D., Kenneth Rice, Ph.D., Talin Haritunians, Ph.D., Gerwin Roks, M.D., Ph.D., Paul L.M.