‘Physicians also need to be on the alert,’ Millman said. ‘While most teens are tired because they’re rest deprived, chronic drowsiness may, in some full cases, become symptoms of an underlying sleep disorder.’ The Pediatrics record is a first, merging an assessment of more than two decades of preliminary research with clinical tips for doctors. It represents a joint effort of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Focus on SLEEP PROBLEMS Research , part of the National Heart, Lung and Bloodstream Institute within the National Institutes of Health. A joint committee formed simply by the AAP and the paper was written by the NCSDR. This 10-member committee includes three other Brown Medical School faculty: Mary Carskadon, Ph.D., director of the Bradley Hospital Rest and Chronobiology Research Laboratory; Judith Owens, M.D., director of the Pediatric Sleep Disorders Clinic at Hasbro Children’s Medical center; and Suzanne Riggs, M.D., director of the Division of Adolescent Medicine at Hasbro Children’s Hospital.Banwell, Ph.D., George Chagaluka, M.B., B.S., Amelia C. Crampin, F.F.P.H.M., Hazel M. Dockrell, Ph.D., Neil French, F.R.C.P., Ph.D., Melissa S. Hamilton, Ph.D., Martin L. Hibberd, Ph.D., Florian Kern, M.D., Paul R. Langford, Ph.D., F.S.B., Ling Ling, M.B., B.S., Rachel Mlotha, F.C.P. , Tom H.M. Ottenhoff, M.D., Ph.D., Sandy Pienaar, M.Sc., Vashini Pillay, M.B., Ch.B., J. Anthony G. Scott, F.R.C.P., Hemed Twahir, M.Med., Robert J. Wilkinson, F.R.C.P., Ph.D., Lachlan J. Coin, Ph.D., Robert S. Heyderman, F.R.C.P., Ph.D., Michael Levin, Ph.D., and Brian Eley, F.C.P. for the ILULU Consortium and Children TB Study Group: Diagnosis of Childhood Tuberculosis and Host RNA Expression in Africa Between 500,000 and 1 million new instances of childhood tuberculosis are diagnosed annually, however the true global burden of childhood tuberculosis is unknown because it is often difficult to confirm the diagnosis microbiologically.1-3 Although most cases of tuberculosis in adults are diagnosed through recognition of acid-fast bacilli on microscopic study of a sputum specimen, in nearly all childhood cases, smears and cultures are harmful for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the diagnosis is manufactured on clinical grounds solely.1,3 Since the symptoms and indicators of childhood tuberculosis are seen in a variety of other conditions, clinical medical diagnosis is unreliable.4 Clinical scoring systems made to aid medical diagnosis have not been validated against the typical of culture-confirmed diagnosis, and the diagnostic accuracy of the systems varies markedly.